The three layers of cathode, electrolyte and anode make up the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The electrolyte is a thin film, usually a sulfonated, perfluorinated polymer. The catalysed electrodes are porous carbon. The operating temperature is less than 100C.

  • Excellent animation video of PEM fuel cell operation!!

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  • Drawing showing how a stack of PEM cells work
  • Drawing of the basic solid oxide fuel (SOFC) cell operation
  • Figure showing configuration options for fuel cell utility systems
  • Figure showing source, process, storage and load options for remote renewable utility systems
  • Remote renewable hydrogen village using a fuel cell
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